A grand theme of this web-site is the clash between the human-made ‘Machine World’  and the Natural World. Links in this section focus on the economic, political, social and cultural ‘macro-systems’ . Exponential but unsustainable demographic, economic and technological growth and related resource depletion characterises modern societies. The links relate to the non-natural world – The Anthropocene Epoch – created by human ingenuity that is now so dominant that humans have become the main ‘geological’ force that is changing the planet’s natural systems (land, water, air and the ecosystems that have evolved over 3.6 billion years).


Optimal global population – population growth has slowed globally. Further slowing can be brought about. The carrying capacity of the planet for an affluent life-style for all is 2.7 billion, a reduction of two-thirds on the current total global population.

Avoiding a food supply tipping point – Food supply may reach a tipping point by 2027 according to this analysis:


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